Some three decades ago, a mystery disease spread throughout Sudan and what is now South Sudan, decimating communities, sewing fear, and killing scores. It turned out to be kala azar, also known as visceral leishmanaisis, a disease that is spread by the bite of a sandfly and that is, as this episode showed, fatal if not treated.

MSF has successfully adapted its treatment protocols over the years in order to bring shorter, less toxic, and less painful options to patients, but a great deal remains to be done in order to provide better, more specialised, more accessible treatment and testing, and to prevent further devastation.